Soyabean seedis a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses. The plant, classed as an oilseed rather than a pulse by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization.Soybean is an important source of high quality but inexpensive protein and oil. It has an average protein content of 40% and oil content of 18% - 20%. Soybean protein has great potential as a major source of dietary protein. A by-product from the oil production (soybean cake) is used as a high-protein animal feed in many countries. Soybean also improves soil fertility by adding nitrogen from the atmosphere.
It has emerged as an important commercial crop in many countries. About 82-85% of the global Soybean production is crushed for oil and meal, while the rest is consumed either in the form of 'bean' itself or for value-added soybean snack foods.The bulk of the crop is solvent extracted for vegetable oil and defatted Soy meal which is used for animal feed. The extracted Soy oil is one of the major sources of edible oil in the world. Soy oil remnant after oil extraction is rich source of protein for livestock. In 2009, soybeans represented 53% of world oilseed production.
India is the 5th largest producer of soybean in the world. The Soybean Production in India is approximately 9.67 million tons in 2009/10. The states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan contribute 95% of the total soybean produced in India. In India, soybean is a Kharif crop. Its sowing begins by end-June with the arrival of south-west monsoon. The crop is ready for harvest by the end of September.
Soybean is the only vegetable food that contains all eight essential amino acids. Soybeans are processed into various soy products namely soy flour, soy milk, cottage cheese like tofu, fermented products like tempeh and miso.
Protein:-Soybean is the richest plant source of protein. Soy protein is also of the highest quality amongst all legumes. Under guidelines adopted by the Food and Drug Administration and the World Health Organization for evaluating protein quality for children and adults, soy protein isolate receives a rating of 1, which is the highest possible score. This means that the quality of soy protein is equal to that of meat and milk proteins.
Fat:-Like protein, soybeans are high in fat too. Most legumes (except peanuts) contain between 2 to 14 percent fat, whereas soybean contains 31 percent fat.
Fiber:-A serving of soybeans provides approximately eight grams of dietary fiber. However, some soy foods are processed in ways that decrease the fiber content significantly. Tofu and soymilk contain very little fiber, while soy foods that utilize the whole bean such as tempeh, soy flour and textured soy protein are high in fiber.
Iron:-Soy is rich in iron too. However, both phytate and soy protein reduce iron absorption which leads to the iron in soyfoods being poorly absorbed. Iron could be better absorbed from fermented soyfoods like tempeh and miso.
Calcium:-Soy foods are a good source of calcium in comparison to the commonly used legumes. Processing affects the calcium content of soyfoods considerably.
Like other whole grains, soy foods are rich in B-vitamins, particularly niacin, pyridoxine and folacin. Soy milk is well fortified with vitamin B12 which makes it a prominent source of this essential nutrient.
- Improves Metabolic Activity.
- Prevent Osteoporosis.
- Lower Cholesterol Level.
- Improves Digestive & Bone Health..
- Aids in Managingweight and diabetes.
- Prevents Neural Tube Defects In Infants.
- Reduces Risk Of Insomnia & Sleep Disorder
- Prevents Onset Of Colorectal & Colon Cancer.
Being an oilseed, Soyabean Seed have surplus uses in oil products. It is majorly used for Soyabean Oil, Soyabean Meal, Soyanut Butter, Livestock Feed, Food For Human Consumption, Flour. Apart from these applications it is also used as Meat & Dairy Alternatives.